Distribution pattern of haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups among undergraduate students of EBSU, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, southeast Nigeria
Keywords:haemoglobin variants, ABO, Rh factor, genotype, prevalence
Background: Knowledge of the distribution pattern of haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group systems is of great importance in both clinical and epidemiological settings. This study was conducted to assess the distribution pattern of haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups among students of the Ebonyi State University (EBSU) in southeast Nigeria.
Method: The study was comprised of 2 640 students, made up of 49.2% male and 50.8% female, with an age range of 17 to 45 years. The participants were randomly selected and blood samples were aseptically collected by venepuncture into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant containers and analysed at the EBSU Ultramodern Laboratory and Research Centre. Haemoglobin variants were determined using the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method, while the ABO and Rh grouping of each sample was done using the tile technique. The test of significance was determined using the Kruskal–Wallis H test.
Results: The findings of the study showed that blood group O (58.1%) has the highest occurring frequency, followed by blood group A (23%), while blood group AB has the lowest prevalence (2.8%). The prevalence of the RhD+ blood group was significantly higher (95.8%, p < 0.05) compared to the RhD- blood group. Haemoglobin AA (HbAA) (74.36%) has the highest occurring frequency, followed by haemoglobin AS (HbAS) (25.19%), haemoglobin SS (HbSS) (0.30%), haemoglobin AC (HbAC) (0.11%), and haemoglobin SC (HbSC) (0.04%). The difference in the distribution of haemoglobin variants among the subjects was statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, the sex and age distribution of the three parameters under study showed that the distribution is neither sex nor age-dependent (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The study established the predominant haemoglobin variants and blood groups among the study population.